and Microphone interconnect basics
From the "ground" up!
© 1999 by Eddie Ciletti for the July issue of EQMagazine
additional updates ©2000, 2004 and
If you’re new to the audio scene, let’s start with a few basic electronic
concepts then move on to Microphones and see how all of the connections
are made, audio and phantom power.
Before taking the time to understand Phantom Power, let's look at the
specs so you have a better understanding of why your mic or direct box
might not be working.
Answers to Frequently Asked questions...
The Phantom Power spec is 48 volts dc from a standard 3-pin XLR connector.
Phantom Powered microphones have a wide operating range, from 9vdc to 48
Some console / mixer manufacturers take advantage of the above range by
not supplying the full 48-volts. They do this because it is easier
Computer microphones that use a mini 1/8-inch (3.5mm) phone plug do require
power, but not phantom power. No simple adapter will make these mics
work in a pro system.
The power supplied by the computer / sound card to the 1/8-inch (3.5mm)
jack not configured to power professional microphones (or powered direct
What’s that you say? You don’t know your AC from your DC? Audio is considered
an Alternating Current, a.k.a. "AC." (So is 120-volt "wall" power.) But
electronic circuits need Direct Current (DC) to turn them on, from batteries
or power supplies. Like a speaker in reverse, a dynamic mic consists of
a coil of wire suspended in a magnetic field. When vibrations move the
cone or "diaphragm," the energy stored in the magnet is transferred to
the wires. (A Dynamic mic is passive and needs no power.)
A DEDICATED SUPPLY
The preamplifier inside Vacuum Tube microphones requires both plate
and filament voltages. Power and audio are delivered via special,
multi-conductor cables and non-standard connectors from a dedicated power
supply. Only then does the mic-level signal appear at a standard three-pin
XLR connector. Transistorized microphones require much less power
and can operate from a battery, hence the idea for phantom power, a system
of distributing a DC voltage through a standard mic cable. All condenser
mics (except electrets) requires a fairly large, but low current DC polarizing
voltage that is applied to a diaphragm — similar to a drum head, but thinner
and plated with a molecularly thin conductive layer that is typically
gold. The signal is not strong enough to venture into the outside world
without an internal buffer / preamp (active electronics) that also requires
A BALANCED BREAKFAST
Compared to both consumer (-10dBV) and professional (+4dBu) Line levels,
Microphones produce a signal that can be considerably lower in level, hence
the need for an external preamplifier. Every precaution is taken to minimize
noise. By design, this begins with using two wires for the signal — referred
to as "balanced" — plus a shield. Contrast this with a passive
electric guitar — that is, one with no active internal electronics
(i.e., a battery is required). A guitar cable uses a single conductor plus
a shield, an unbalanced signal.
PHANTOM POWER: First you see it, then you don't
The rear of a Female XLR is shown in Figure One with a Red wire
on Pin-2 and a Black wire on Pin-3. Pin-1 is called "ground" and the reference
to terra firma implies that the metal body of the mic will ultimately connect
to the "earth" and is therefore safe to touch even if you are barefoot
in a pool of water (the Green wire). A good ground connection also improves
HOT AND COLD
In most cases, a "balanced" signal appears on both pin-2 (hot) and pin-3
(cold.) "Hot and cold" refer to Polarity, plus and minus (+ and —), respectively.
As you can see on the left side of Figure One, the same signal appears
on pin-3 with reverse-polarity, that is, 180 degrees "out-of-phase." Even
though the AC signal is constantly changing, it is important to establish
a reference, in the same way that a loud speaker has "polarized" terminals.
A kick drum creates air pressure that moves the mic diaphragm, generating
a positive going voltage on pin-2. After trips to and from all of the processing
and recording gear you can imagine, a woofer should recreate that same
in-your-face gust of air. (Only better, of course!)
With properly designed balanced gear, output polarity equals input polarity,
so it doesn’t matter whether Pin-2 or Pin-3 is designated as "hot," so
long as the input and output wiring is consistent — with regard to polarity
— throughout your system. You will occasionally have to interconnect unbalanced
gear, in which case the tip (of a quarter-inch plug) or the center-pin
(of an RCA connector) are always "hot." However, be very careful when
interfacing unbalanced gear that uses XLR connectors. If one
is designated pin-2 hot and the other as pin-3 hot, all you will get is
A microphone’s source impedance is 200 ohms (W
). Speakers are lower at 4W , 8W
or 16W , but a Professional "lo-Z" mic is optimized
to drive a long cable without signal degradation. This is in direct contrast
to a passive electric guitar, which is an unbalanced, hi-Z device that
is susceptible to every snap, crackle and pop technology can generate.
The built-in preamps in modern condenser microphones do not necessarily
produce signal on pin-3, but the impedance of pin-3 must match that of
pin-2 for noise immunity.
Two (identical but) out-of-phase signals do not combine on a mixer,
they cancel. A Mixer, by nature, "sums" all of the channels together. But
subtracting a balanced signal — by using a "differential" input amplifier
(active) or a transformer (passive) — generates two results. First, the
audio signals "add up" instead of cancel. Second, any noises common to
pin-2 and pin-3 (like the red "spike" in Figure One) are left behind.
"Common Mode Rejection" is the term used to describe how well a preamp
can ignore the fact that you ran a mic cable right next to a wall wart.
Try that with a guitar cable!
A vintage preamp is not likely to have phantom power because
either dynamic mics were used or the condenser mics of the day had their
own external supplies. In addition, you will occasionally run into a piece
of gear with a quarter-inch mic input. To connect a balanced dynamic mic,
you will need a transformer/adapter, Radio Shack part number 274-016. It
may not be audiophile-grade, but it will get you started.
DON’T BE SCARED
Though miniaturization started before "solid state" electronics, transistorized
circuitry ushered in a new era of devices whose power requirements were
considerably lower than their vacuum tube counterparts. Older versions
of the Neumann U-87 included a "window" in the case to expose a meter that
indicated the presence of either the internal Battery or the "external"
Battery operation implies that very little current was required. That
a system was devised to send power down a standard mic cable was even more
clever. Quite simply, +48 volts DC is piggybacked on top of both AC signals
— on pin-2 and pin-3 — via two resistors, without disturbance. (This is
the "Phantom" signal.) The negative or "return path" to the DC supply is
connected to pin-1.
DOCTOR F’s D.I.Y. PHANTOM PROJECT
To create a phantom power adapter, your project box should include two
connectors: a Female XLR as mic input and a Male XLR to feed the mic signal
to the preamp. Then — with a suitable 48-volt DC power supply — make the
positive and negative connections to the Yellow and Green wires, respectively,
as shown in Figure One. (Most parts are available from such "catalog"
suppliers as Radio Shack, MCM Electronics,
Digi-Key and Mouser Electronics.)
The typical value of the two resistors is 6.81k-ohm. More than just
the audio and the source impedance (of pin-2 and pin-3) must be balanced.
The "phantom" resistors must also match to a tolerance of at least 1% —
.1% tolerance would be even better.
The resistor color code is interpreted as follows. The first
three stripes from left to right are the significant figures. For example:
1st stripe (blue = 6), 2nd stripe (gray = 8), 3rd
stripe (brown = 1). The 4th stripe is the decimal multiplier,
in this case brown = one "zero" instead of the number "one." The fifth
stripe is the tolerance: brown = 1%. So, from that you can conclude that
the value is 6.81kW . Low-noise metal-film resistors
were used in Figure One along with a "local" capacitor to filter
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